A major development in the history of nursing is credited to Florence Nightingale, who helped transform nursing from a trade to vocation. Being a member of the upper class, she had access to education and training, which allowed her to develop an environmental theory of nursing and advance her ideas of a nursing vocation. There were little academic instructions considering the training of students to perform nursing.
Goldmark Report InAdelaide Nutting relentless in her efforts to document the need for nursing education reform approached the Rockefeller Foundation for support.
Funding was provided, and, inthe Committee for the Study of Nursing Education was established to investigate the training of public health nurses.
Winslow, professor of public health, Yale Universitychaired the committee, composed of ten physicians, two lay persons, and six nurses: Josephine Goldmark, a social worker, served as the secretary to the committee.
As secretary, Goldmark developed the methodology of data collection and analysis for a small sampling of the schools of nursing in existence. The study of 23 of the best nursing schools across the nation represented a cross-sample of schools—small and large, public and private.
Goldmark identified the major weakness of the hospital- based training programs as that of putting the needs of the institution service delivery before the needs of the student education. Nursing tradition and the apprenticeship form of education reinforced putting the needs of the client before the learning needs of the student.
Some major inadequacies identified in nursing education by the study were limited resources, low admission standards, lack of supervision, poorly trained instructors, and failure to correlate clinical practice with theory.
The report concluded that for nursing to be on equal footing with other disciplines, nursing education should occur in the university setting. A Study for Change. Several recommendations were put forth in this study, including the need for nurses to demonstrate greater professional competence by moving nursing education from the hospital to the university setting.
Although published 20 years after the Goldmark report, the Brown report identified many of the same problems in diploma education—nursing students were still being used for service by the hospitals and inadequate resources and authoritarianism in hospitals still prevailed in nursing education.
Brown recognized that nursing education in the university setting would provide the proper intellectual climate for the professional.
Visionary nurse educators were securing necessary learning resources: Professional endeavors such as research and publication were being implemented by nurse leaders. Some contributing factors to the dearth of nurses were the low esteem of nursing as a profession, long hours with a heavy workload, and low salaries.
There was a proliferation of practical nursing schools in the United States to increase the supply of nurses. This era also saw passage of the Nurse Training Actwhich provided federal funds to expand enrollments in schools of nursing. Federal funds were used to construct nursing schools, and student loans and scholarships were made available to nursing students.
Selected Legislation The Health Maintenance Organization Act of provided an alternative to the private health insurance industry.
Health maintenance organizations HMOs are prepaid health plans that provide primary health care services for a predetermined fee. See Chapter 7 for further discussion. Because the fee is set in advance of services being rendered, HMOs provide cost-effective services.
See Chapter 3 for further discussion. Through the efforts of Anne Zimmerman, former President of the ANA, the bill was amended to substitute the term primary care providers for physician extenders and, therefore, allowed nurse practitioners to be paid directly for their services.
This was a major success for nursing. The Rural Health Clinic Service Act of covered services rendered by nurse practitioners and nurse-midwives. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of mandated payment for nurse-midwife services to needy recipients.This paper discusses a timeline of the development of nursing science history starting with Florence Nightingale to present times.
Florence Nightingale will always be associated with nursing, regardless how the field of nursing changes. Essay on Historical Timeline of Nursing Theorists.
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Sample Essay on Nursing: American Nurses Association defines nursing as protection and ability to prevent illness through treatment of the human response. The main aspect of my nursing philosophy and the value systems are as follows: time management, advocacy, knowledge, honesty, privacy of the patient, and respect.
Nursing Leaders American nursing’s history is rich with many outstanding leaders. Following is a discussion of some other nursing pioneers in America. Information is presented in alphabetical, not chronological, order.
Historical development of Nursing Timeline Iva Sandford HCS January 30, Jenna Hasenour Historical development of Nursing Timeline Nursing has not always been a respected profession.
In fact, it was a job reserved for the women of “ill repute.”A publication once read that a nurse should not be subject to headaches or easily “knocked up” (Hutchinson, ). 9). This program allows for nurses with an MSN to lead a health care team in making changes in nursing practice and within the health care system based on research (Burns & Grove, p.